Python and JavaScript

17 Mar 2014

One late night at Hacker School a few months ago, I had the chance to discuss programming languages with the inimitable Will Byrd. At one point I mentioned that JavaScript and Python felt terrifically similar to me. Will thought that seemed odd, which made me want to examine it further.

Let me tell you about my favorite dynamically typed language.


In this language, everything is an object.1

Objects are buckets of properties;2 they’re mappings of names to other objects.3 These properties can be accessed with dot notation - that is, the name bar can be accessed on the object foo with

Not all names that can be accessed with dot notation on an object are actually properties of that object, but instead might belong to other linked objects. Objects are linked in this way in a hierarchy for property lookup, so if bar doesn’t exist on foo, whatever object bar “inherits from” will be used as another bucket of properties to look for that name in, and so on for that object.5 Most objects can have properties tacked on later, using obj.prop = value syntax.6 Modifying or creating a new attribute in this way will only effect the object to the left of the dot, even if using property access on the same name would have retrieved a property from higher up the inheritance tree.78

Functions are a kind of object. Functions have parameters which specify what names to bind passed arguments to when executing the body of the function. Objects are returned from functions with the return statement, and a default return value is used if no return statement is encountered while executing the function. There are no methods as such: no functions which are inherently bound to instances of objects. Instead the method-ness of a function is determined at runtime.9 When you look up a function on an object and call it, its behavior is specific to that object.10

Variables are references to objects, and are not constrained in the type of object to which they can refer in any way. The only scope barriers are functions.11 (Bodies of for loops, brackets, indentation, etc. do not provide new scopes.) A variable name may refer to a local variable or a variable in a scope surrounding where the function was defined.

In some languages, while inside of a method definition, other methods of the same object can be called without an explicit reference to an object.12 If you want to refer to a method or instance variable from within a function, you need to start with a reference to the object and do property lookup on that; there is no implicit object scope.

If a variable is declared in a function, that name has been declared local for the whole function, even for uses of the name occurring before the declaration of the variable.13 If a variable from an outside scope can be accessed, it can be reassigned.14

Thanks for reading

What else can we say about both JavaScript and Python? Thanks to several folks at Hacker School for help.

  1. This is the biggest lie in the post. If you swallow it, you’ll be alright with the other ones. If this assertion offends you terrifically, you probably won’t like this post. (or perhaps you’ll enjoy nitpicking it :) If you can kind of see how that could be true, since most primitive types get automatically wrapped as their corresponding objects pretty seamlessly when you call methods on them, you might be able to keep reading. Please also ignore null and undefined are also objects, the existance of which really makes this assertion worse. If this is new and intriguing, I found this a good intro to JavaScript primitives. What I’ll continue to call objects in this posts are really objects plus JavaScript primitives.

  2. Python calls them attributes, and uses “property” to describe a specific kind of attribute.

  3. or the same object

  4. In JavaScript, you can also use index notation, foo['bar'], to do the same thing. In Python, this notation is used to access an entirely separate namespace - this allows the keys of a dictionary to be entirely separate from its methods, so something like foo.hasOwnProperty(bar) isn’t necessary when iterating over an objects properties.

  5. Python has classes, which means that non-class objects aren’t allowed to be in the hierarchy of objects that attributes are looked up on. The attribute lookup process is complicated in Python (this document is a great resource), but it’s basically to look for the attribute on the object, then the objects’s class object, then the class objects that class inherits from.

    In JavaScript, the hierarchy is simpler: property lookup proceeds to an objects “prototype”, and then on to that prototype’s prototype, and so on. Prototypes are determined by the value of value of the .prototype property of the function that constructed the object via the new keyword.

  6. In JavaScript, almost every object can have properties added later, but in Python some objects are backed by __slots__ instead of dictionaries, so can’t have arbitrary attributes added.

  7. This isn’t true of data descriptors in Python - in this case properties apparently later in the property lookup chain can steal a property lookup even when the earlier object has an attribute with that name - this is because the real property lookup chain is more complicated.

  8. Not true, because in JavaScript, setters and getters can be established for properties via configurable properties so getting or setting an attribute could run arbitrary code that could modify a property higher up on the prototype chain.

  9. In Python, there are only functions, which can get curried into being bound methods at attribute lookup time if they are retrieved by property lookup on an object. In JavaScript, any function can be a method, if it is obtained and immediately called via property lookup. (, but not a =; a(), which does work in Python)

  10. In Python it’s on lookup, in JavaScript it’s on lookup-and-calling only if the two happen together. In Python the function is made specific to an object by partially applying the function with the first argument as the object - so the function takes one less argument, since the first positional argument is automatically pointed at the object. In JavaScript the keyword this now refers to the object.

  11. And classes and modules in Python

  12. JavaScript is often written in a such a way that functions use local scope to provide access to variables specific to an object with with closures, but these variables aren’t properties, they’re just local variables

  13. In JavaScript, variables are declared (their scoping is determined) with the var keyword. In Python, variables are declared by doing assignment (a = 2) or use of the global or nonlocal keywords.

  14. In Python, this means not using the equals sign to declare the name as local, which how you reassign variables - so you’re in a tricky situation. You can use global or nonlocal (Python 3 only) in a scope to specify that even though you’re using assignment, that name refers to the variable with the same name in another scope.